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Changes characterized by focal loss of Purkinje neurons (Fig. 1-A3). NDEA exposure, with or without chronic HFD feeding, resulted in loss of Purkinje cells (Figs. 1-A2, 1-A4) and variable thinning of the granule cell layer. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated similar levels and distributions of GFAP immunoreactivity in cells distributed in the granule layer of control (Fig 1-B1) and HFD-fed
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Urs), rats were sacrificed by i.p. injection of pentobarbital (120 mg/kg). Blood and cerebella were harvested immediately. Blood or serum was used to measure glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acid levels, as previously described [45,46]. Cerebella were harvested for histopathological, biochemical, and molecular studies. For histopathology, tissue samples were immersion f
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We measured gene expression corresponding to insulin and IGF polypeptides and receptors, and insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) that transmit signals required for growth, survival, energy metabolism, and neuronalELISAs were used to measure sustained effects of NDEA treatment and/or chronic HFD feeding on Tau, phospho-Tau, AbPP, AbPP-Ab, ChAT, and AChE levels in brain tissue. Early limited exposure
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Lyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and immunodetection reagents were purchased from Abcam (Cambridge, MA), Vector Laboratories (Burlingame, CA), Upstate (Billerica, MA), Chemicon (Temecula, CA), or Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR). The insulin ultra-sensitive ELISA kit was obtained from ALPCO Diagnostics (Salem, NH). Histochoice fixative was purchased from Amresco, Inc (Solon, OH). Antibodies to tumo
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Affected in AD, as well as other neurodegenerative diseases [47,50, 53,56,59,60,65,68,69,71], and cerebellar degeneration causes cognitive impairment [49,57-59,62,63,66,67,72]. Previous studies demonstrated significant structural, functional, and metabolic abnormalities in AD cerebella [57-59,82], including insulin and IGF resistance [30],similar to the findings in more traditional targets of AD,
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In HeLa cells. Autophagy. 2011;7(1):27?9. 64. Debnath J, Mills KR, Collins NL, Reginato MJ, Muthuswamy SK, Brugge JS. The role of apoptosis in creating and maintaining luminal space within normal and oncogene-expressing mammary acini. Cell. 2002;111(1):29?0. 65. Fung C, Lock R, Gao S, Salas E, Debnath J. Induction of autophagy during extracellular matrix detachment promotes cell survival. Mol Biol
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Y effects of NDEA on insulin receptor, IGF2 receptor, and IRS-2 were muted by the chronic HFD feeding. Moreover, the main effect of NDEA, irrespective of HFD feeding, was to reduce tau gene expression, whereas chronic HFD feeding, irrespective of NDEA treatment, significantly inhibited ChAT. The only unique effect of HFD+NDEA treatment was to reduce insulin gene expression in the brain.Effects of
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F vehicle or NDEA (N = 12/group) on alternate days beginning on P3. From P21 (weaning), rats were fed with high fat (60 of calories) or low fat (5 of calories) diets for 8 weeks, after which they were sacrificed to harvest cerebella for histopathological and immunohistochemical staining studies. Cerebella were preserved in Histofix and paraffin-embedded sections (8 microns) were stained with (A1